Tottenham vs Southampton

February 10, 2020

first_imgSPURS (4-2-3-1)LLORIS,WALKER, ALDERWIRELD, VERTONGHEN, ROSE,DIER, MASON,LAMELA, ALLI, ERIKSEN,KANESOUTHAMPTON (4-1-3-2)LONG,TADIC, DAVIS, MANE,CLASIE, WANYAMA,BERTRAND, VAN DIJK, FONTE, MARTINA,FORSTERAfter the disappointment of Monday night, when Tottenham Hotspur drew 2-2 at Chelsea and with that stalemate saw their final hopes of winning the Barclays Premier League come to an end, they return for their final home game of the season.The incentive for Spurs now is to try and finish in second place. If they beat Southampton and Arsenal fail to win at Manchester City, they will be guaranteed that second spot.And if they do confirm the runners-up spot it will be their best ever finish in the Premier League and highest since they were second in 1962-63 in the old First Division.Spurs are now unbeaten in their last eight games in the Premier League games while they last lost at White Hart Lane in January against league champions Leicester City.Southampton, meanwhile, have lost just once in their last eight in the league – and that was also against Leicester, in April.But their record at White Hart Lane is poor. They have lost on their last four visits and last won there in September 2003.last_img read more

San Ramon Valley HS grad Sam Alipour signs deal with ESPN

December 21, 2019

first_imgSam Alipour, who grew up in Danville and Pleasanton, has signed a multiyear contract to remain with ESPN as a senior reporter and as host of the popular “SportsCenter” series “Hang Time,” it was announced Thursday.In “Hang Time,” Alipour is granted extraordinary access to, and revealing interviews with, sports stars as they partake in their hobbies and realize their off-field dreams in unique settings. His latest piece was with Warriors forward Draymond Green eating sushi and walking the …last_img read more

Stasis Is Not Evolution

December 19, 2019

first_img(Visited 433 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Only Darwinians would turn non-evolution or breakage into evidences for evolution.Stasis Is Not EvolutionEvolutionary backing found in analysis of mammalian vertebrae (Science Daily). If the headline makes you think you will hear evidence that backs evolution, what you will read is quite different. Darwinians at New York University are puzzled about non-evolution:The work centers on an effort to better understand why certain aspects of mammals remain consistent over time — a phenomenon known as evolutionary stasis.How’s that for an oxymoron? “Evolutionary stasis” means ‘evolutionary non-evolution.’Despite the diversity evolution has yielded, there remain consistencies across a wide range of distantly related organisms. Of particular note is the number neck (cervical) and back (thoracic and lumbar) vertebrae of mammals.“Nearly all mammals have the same number of cervical vertebrae, no matter how long or short their necks are — humans, giraffes, mice, whales, and platypuses all have exactly seven cervical vertebrae,” explains co-author Jeff Spear, an NYU doctoral student.The phrase “despite the diversity evolution has yielded” is an assertion of belief in Darwinism, not evidence. Actually, when you think about it, why hasn’t Darwinian evolution produced different numbers of cervical vertebrae? Isn’t evolution infinitely flexible?Darwin used the similarity of pentadactyl limbs as evidence for his theory. Ever since, diagrams of diverse organisms all bearing five digits have been used in classrooms to prove that humans and whales inherited them from the first fish that crawled out onto land. Giving this a name like ‘canalization’ only proves one thing: that Darwinians can explain opposite things with the same theory. Actually, this iconic drawing can be used as evidence against evolution as well as for it. Why should evolution get stuck in a rut in the first place? Watch Michael Denton explain this problem for Darwinists in a short video at Evolution News.Loss Is Not Evolution, EitherDarwinian evolution, we are told, is such a powerful, creative process, it produced humans from bacteria. When you think of the thousands or millions of genes that must have arisen to produce that kind of complexity, evidence for it should be more than abundant. But often the media tell us about cases of genetic loss of pre-existing information. That’s Darwinism in reverse.Life in evolution’s fast lane ( Look at how much genetic information was lost in a line of yeast. The devolution is so bad, this line cannot repair its DNA as effectively as other species can. They only appear to survive against mutational load because there are so many of them.Most living things have a suite of genes dedicated to repairing their DNA, limiting the rate at which their genomes change through time. But scientists at Vanderbilt and University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered an ancient lineage of budding yeasts that appears to have accumulated a remarkably high load of mutations due to the unprecedented loss of dozens of genes involved in repairing errors in DNA and cell division, previously thought to be essential.Signs of selection in the stomach ( Darwinian biologists at the University of Munich are intrigued that the pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers, adapts easily and diversifies within individuals and groups. When the germs are exposed to antibiotics, however, they cease diversifying, and only the resistant strain survives. This is a sign of a loss of genetic information – the opposite of Darwinian progress.At the initial sample from this individual, the H. pylori population was highly diverse and showed no signs of resistance to any of the antibiotics tested during growth in the laboratory. However, in a sample collected 2 years later, the level of diversity within the population was extremely low, and the bacteria had become completely resistant to a frontline antibiotic. Over the course of the intervening 2 years, the population had apparently undergone a massive reduction in size, which set the scene for the subsequent large-scale change in the structure of the surviving population.This scenario fits what Michael Behe argues in his new book Darwin Devolves. Organisms sometimes survive only by losing genetic information. When facing a threat, they will break or blunt anything that allows them to evade the threat, like a crew in a storm tossing cargo overboard to keep from sinking. That is not what Darwin had in mind. When all is said and done, the experimental population was still H. pylori, the same species at the beginning. That’s a remarkable amount of non-evolution for an organism thought to have plagued hominins for millions of years.Centre for Cancer Drug Discovery to focus on anti-evolution treatments (New Scientist). Some evolutionists treat cancer cells as models of Darwinian evolution. These surely are poor subjects to use as evidence. For one, they are not free-living organisms. For two, they are broken! They are out of control. The rapid changes in cancer cells do not imply fitness or innovation, but shifting-sideways changes that allow them to resist drugs. The article provides no evidence for the evolution Darwin had in mind. In fact, doctors are trying to force their “evolution” (if it can be called that) into dead ends so that cancer cells will die of their own evolution.last_img read more

R10m for small media agency

December 19, 2019

first_img18 October 2004Commercial print and broadcast media in South Africa will pay R10-million over the next five years towards the development of community newspapers and radio stations, the Media Development and Diversity Agency (MDDA) said in Pretoria on Friday.The funding, to which the government will add another R7-million, will be paid over the next five years by media groups CTP Limited (Caxton), e-TV, Independent Newspapers, Johnnic Publishing, Kagiso Broadcasting, Media24, M-Net, Primedia Broadcasting and the SABC.MDDA chairperson Kanyi Mkonza told reporters at the Union Buildings that the agency was now officially “up and running” after 18 months of negotiations between the government and media houses.The MDDA, an independent statutory body funded by the government and the commercial media, was set up under the MDDA Act of 2002 to promote media diversity and development in the country by providing support to community and small commercial media.The agency disburses grants to community, small commercial and media research projects in four cycles each year.Minister in the Presidency Essop Pahad said the funds would benefit not only community media but also the major media groups because it would establish a culture of reading, thus broadening the audience base for the mainstream media.“The more we encourage people to read and write, the better for us as a country”, Pahad said. “This is a way to look at capacity building and imparting skills to our communities.”Pahad said he believed the MDDA model would be franchised around the world. “There is no doubt in my mind that other countries will look at the MDDA for what they want to do”, he said.Johnnic chairperson Connie Molusi echoed Pahad, saying the private sector’s investment in community media would benefit the industry as a whole, and would help diversify voices to sustain the country’s democracy.The MDDA disbursed its first round of grants for 20 projects in January and May 2004, with grants for a further 15 projects approved in August.Among the beneficiaries were community radio stations Moutse in Mpumalanga, Mohodi Moletjie in Limpopo, Kathorus FM and Radio Mams in Gauteng, and Taemaneng in Northern Cape.Community newspapers that have benefited so far include Nkomazi: The Voice in Mpumalanga, Seipone in Limpopo, Homeless Talk and Thembisa News in Gauteng, and Siyaya in the Eastern Cape.CTP Limited (Caxton), e-TV, Independent Newspapers, Johnnic Publishing, Kagiso Broadcasting, Media24, M-Net, Primedia Broadcasting and the SABC are all represented on the MDDA board.Source: BuaNews Want to use this article in your publication or on your website?See: Using SAinfo materiallast_img read more

South Africa’s wildlife wonders

December 18, 2019

first_imgCities have grown, much land has been given over to farming, hunting has wiped out entire herds, and the times when a herd of springbok could take days to pass through a Karoo town are long past.A pair of cheetahs in South Africa’s Kruger National Park. (Image: South African Tourism)Brand South Africa reporterThanks to the foresight of conservationists past and present, South Africa remains blessed with abundant wildlife.The Big FiveThe big catsLesser known wildlifeOver 200 mammal speciesMarine mammals and fishThe crocodile … and other reptilesBirdlifeThe Big FiveBest known are the mammals, and the best known of these are the famous Big Five: elephant, lion, rhino, leopard and buffalo. Not that giraffe, hippo or whale are small …South Africa’s bushveld and savannah regions are still home to large numbers of the mammals universally associated with Africa.The Kruger National Park alone has well over 10 000 elephants and 20 000 buffaloes – in 1920 there were an estimated 120 elephants left in the whole of South Africa.The white rhino has also been brought back from the brink of extinction and now flourishes both in the Kruger National Park and the Hluhluwe Umfolozi Park in KwaZulu-Natal. Attention now is on protecting the black rhino.Both these parks are home to all of the Big Five, as are other major reserves in South Africa – such as Pilanesberg in North West province – and numerous smaller reserves and private game lodges.The big catsAside from occupying the top rung of the predation ladder, the lion also tops the glamour stakes. Sadly, it does have one formidable enemy in humankind, which has expelled it from most of the country so that it now remains almost exclusively in conservation areas.The beautiful leopard survives in a larger area, including much of the southern Cape and far north of the country, although numbers are small in some places.The cheetah is the speed champ, capable of dashes of almost 100 kilometres an hour. Its population is comparatively small and confined mostly to the far north (including the Kruger National Park), the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the Northern Cape, and reserves in KwaZulu-Natal and North West province.Lesser known wildlifeOther quintessentially African large animals are the hippo, giraffe, kudu, wildebeest (the famous gnu) and zebra, all frequently seen in South Africa’s conservation areas.Heightened awareness, however, has created an increased appreciation of lesser known animals. A sighting of the rare tsessebe (a relative of the wildebeest) may cause as much excitement as the sight of a pride of lion. And while one can hardly miss a nearby elephant, spotting the shy little forest-dwelling suni (Livingstone’s antelope) is cause for self-congratulation.On the really small scale, one could tackle the challenge of ticking off each of South Africa’s seven species of elephant shrew – a task that would take one all over the country and, probably, a long time to accomplish.Over 200 mammal speciesWith well over 200 species, a short survey of South Africa’s indigenous mammals is a contradiction in terms. A few examples will help to indicate the range.In terms of appeal, primates rate highly. In South Africa they include the nocturnal bushbabies, vervet and samango monkeys, and chacma baboons which – encouraged by irresponsible feeding and under pressure through loss of habitat – have become unpopular as raiders of homes on the Cape Peninsula.Dassies (hyraxes, residents of rocky habitats) and meerkats (suricates, familiar from their alert upright stance) have tremendous charm, although the dassie can be an agricultural problem.The secretive nocturnal aardvark (which eats ants and is the only member of the order Tubulidentata) and the aardwolf (which eats termites and is related to the hyaena) are two more appealing creatures, and both are found over virtually the whole country.And for those who like their terrestrial mammals damp, there is the widely distributed Cape clawless otter, which swims in both fresh and sea water. The spotted-necked otter has a more limited territory. Both are rare, however, and difficult to spot.One mammal whose charm is recently acquired is the wild dog or Cape hunting dog, one of Africa’s most endangered mammals. Once erroneously reviled as indiscriminate killers but now appreciated both for their ecological value and their remarkably caring family behaviour, wild dog packs require vast territories.They are found in small numbers in the Kruger National Park and environs, northern KwaZulu-Natal (including the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park), the Kalahari, and the Madikwe reserve in North West province.More common canine carnivores are the hyaena, jackal and bat-eared fox. Feline carnivores – besides the big cats mentioned above – include the caracal with its characteristic tufted ears, the African wild cat and the rare black-footed cat. Other flesh eaters include the civet, genet and several kinds of mongoose.The plant eaters are well represented by various antelope, from the little duiker to the large kudu and superbly handsome sable antelope, which is found only in the most northerly regions.Mammals take to the air, too: South Africa is well endowed with bat species.Marine mammals and fishAnd they take to the sea. The largest mammal of all – in South Africa and the world – is the blue whale, which can grow to 33 metres in length.But of the eight whale species found in South African waters (including the dramatic black-and-white killer whale), the most frequently seen by humans is the southern right whale. This imposing creature comes into coastal bays to calve, allowing for superb land-based viewing.The southern right whale represents one of conservation’s success stories. Once considered the “right” whale to hunt, its population became so depleted that it was designated a protected species. With the greater familiarity that their return to the coastal bays has produced, they are now as well loved as the many dolphins in our coastal waters.South Africa’s seas are rich in fish species. Perhaps the most awesome of these is the great white shark, but this is only one of more than 2 000 species, comprising 16% of the world’s total. Various line fish, rock lobster and abalone are of particular interest to gourmets, while pelagic fish (sardines and pilchards) and hake have large- scale commercial value.The crocodile … and other reptilesLess generously endowed with freshwater fish – 112 named species, a mere 1.3% of the world total – South Africa nonetheless has one river-dweller that is, as much as any of the Big Five, a symbol of Africa. The crocodile still rules some stretches of river and estuary, lakes and pools, exacting an occasional toll in human life.Other aquatic reptiles of note are the sea-roaming loggerhead and leatherback turtles, the focus of a major community conservation effort at their nesting grounds on the northern KwaZulu-Natal shoreline.South Africa’s land reptiles include rare tortoises and the fascinating chameleon. There are well over 100 species of snake. While about half of them, including the python, are non-venomous, others – such as the puffadder, green and black mamba, boomslang and rinkhals – are decidedly so.The country’s comparative dryness accounts for its fairly low amphibian count – 84 species. To make up for that, however, South Africa boasts over 77 000 species of invertebrates.BirdlifeBirders from around the world come to South Africa to experience the country’s great variety of typically African birds, migrants, and endemics (those birds found only in South Africa).Of the 850 or so species that have been recorded in South Africa, about 725 are resident or annual visitors, and about 50 of these are endemic or near-endemic.Apart from the resident birds, South Africa hosts a number of intra-African migrants such as cuckoos and kingfishers, as well as birds from the Arctic, Europe, Central Asia, China and Antarctica during the year.South Africa’s birdlife ranges from the ostrich – farmed in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape, but seen in the wild mostly in the north of the country – through such striking species as the hornbills to the ubiquitous LBJs (“Little Brown Jobs”).One small area alone, around the town of Vryheid in northern KwaZulu-Natal, offers wetlands, grasslands, thornveld and both montane and riverine forest, and around 380 species have been recorded there.A birder need not move out of a typical Johannesburg garden to spot grey loeries, mousebirds, hoopoes, hadeda ibises, crested and black-collared barbets, Cape whiteyes, olive thrushes … or a lone Burchell’s coucal poking clumsily around a tree. And that would by no means complete the list.Among the most spectacular birds of South Africa are the cranes, most easily spotted in wetlands – although the wattled crane is a lucky find as it is extremely uncommon. The beautiful blue crane is South Africa’s national bird, while the crowned crane is probably the flashiest of the three with its unmistakable prominent crest.Among its larger bird species, South Africa also has several eagles and vultures. Among its most colourful are kingfishers, bee-eaters, sunbirds, the exquisite lilacbreasted roller, and the Knysna and purple-crested louries.Reviewed December 2016.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.last_img read more

How to Build a Base of Savings

December 12, 2019

first_img Return to article. Long DescriptionFlickr [Piggy Bank by 401(K) 2012, January 20, 2012, CC BY-SA 2.0] Retrieved on January 6, 2015Make Savings Automatic– Automate savings because people are less tempted to spend money if they don’t see it. Automated strategies include: transferring a set amount from a checking to a savings account, making payroll deposits to a credit union, and transferring a set amount directly each month from a bank account to a mutual fund or stock dividend reinvestment plan (DRIP).Complete a Savings Challenge– Aim to finish savings challenges, like the 30-Day $100 Savings Challenge, 15-Week Savings Challenge, 52-Week Money Challenge, and 50-week $2,500 Savings Challenge. Challenges provide a savings goal, a designated time frame, and suggested daily or weekly savings deposits. PFM personnel might consider adding wrap-around briefings and prizes to actively encourage participation.Contribute to Tax-Deferred Retirement Plans– Contribute as much as possible to the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) and/or open an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The earlier people start saving for retirement, the more time their money has to grow, even if it is a small sum. TSP and tax-deductible traditional IRA deposits and earnings are taxed upon withdrawal. Roth IRAs have no up-front tax deduction but earnings are tax-free after age 59 ½ for accounts open at least 5 years.Earn “Free Money”- Try to save at least the maximum amount of money that can be matched. This is “free money” that should not be passed up. Dollar for dollar matched savings is like getting a 100% return on an investment. When pay increases, raise the TSP contribution, which can raise matched savings. TSP savings plans in the BRS offer four benefits: employer matching, a federal income tax write-off, ongoing tax-deferral, and automatic deposits via payroll deduction. By Barbara O’Neill, Ph.D., CFP®, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, [email protected] Military Personal Financial Management (PFM) program personnel have an opportunity to change the lives of the military families that they serve. In the case of young enlisted military personnel, the potential exists for them to become millionaires through a combination of regular savings and compound interest.Even small dollar amounts will grow to 5-, 6- or 7-figure sums with decades of compound interest. Math genius Albert Einstein was so impressed with this concept that he called compounding the “8th wonder of the world.”U.S. Air Force illustration/Staff Sgt. Alexandre MontesA savings account for emergencies and a tax-deferred Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) retirement account are two great places to save. Service members who save $4,000 annually (about $77 week) at a 7% average annual return will have almost $850,000 in 40 years according to the Bankrate Compound Interest Calculator.When an employer matches young adults’ savings, they can easily become millionaires! With the new Blended Retirement System (BRS) that went into effect in 2018, service members may receive up to 4% in matching contributions, on top of a 1% automatic contribution, until they reach 26 years of service.Below are six action steps for service members to take to build a base of savings: Save a Dollar a Day- Put a dollar a day, plus pocket change, into a can or jar. At the end of each month, they’ll be about $50 to deposit into a savings account. Financial planners advise saving 3 to 6 months expenses for emergencies but any amount of savings is better than none. As services members’ pay increases, they might save $3, or even $5, a day, plus loose change (about $120 and $180 monthly).Live Below Your Means– Track expenses for a month or two to identify spending leaks and to “find” money to save. David Bach, author of The Automatic Millionaire, calls these expenses the “Latte Factor™” because many people spend $5 (or more) a day on fancy coffees, fast food, and similar “impulse” items. This calculator can help users identify their personal “lattes” so they can save this money instead. Flickr [Piggy Bank by 401(K) 2012, January 20, 2012, CC BY-SA 2.0] Retrieved on January 6, 2015last_img read more

Toronto neurosurgeon charged in the death of his wife denied bail

October 17, 2019

first_imgTORONTO – A Toronto neurosurgeon charged with first-degree murder in the death of his wife has been denied bail.Dr. Mohammed Shamji, 41, showed little emotion as he sat in a Toronto courtroom on Wednesday.Shamji worked at Toronto Western Hospital and was a faculty member at the University of Toronto.He was charged in December 2016 in the death of his wife, Dr. Elana Fric-Shamji.The 40-year-old woman, a family physician at Scarborough Hospital, was last seen on Nov. 30.Her strangled and beaten body was later found in a suitcase by a roadside north of Toronto.Police have said the couple, who were married for 12 years, had three young children.last_img read more

Hate speech is really what this is Violent message scrawled on Pride

October 17, 2019

first_imgCALGARY – Days after Pride and Trans crosswalks were spray-painted with graffiti on Stephen Ave, another case of vandalism on a rainbow crosswalk has popped up.Sunday morning, Nolan Hill tweeted a photo that had been circulating on social media of “shoot a f*****” scrawled on the Nolan Hill pride crosswalk in what appears to be permanent marker.“It’s frustrating to see. Having seen the news stories about previous vandalism was hard, but this was so much more violent and aggressive and it’s really hard to see when it’s something that makes you feel unsafe,” shared Hill.Doctor Kristopher Wells shared the image.More vandalism of #yyc Pride crosswalks. This is most certainly a hate crime that should be fully investigated. It’s also a crime against intelligence when you can’t even spell your hate correctly.— Dr. Kristopher Wells (@KristopherWells) August 18, 2019“This is particularly alarming due to the violent comment. Hate speech is really what this is,” Wells said. “It’s pretty unambiguous what this person feels.”Wells is calling on the Calgary Police Service to step in and open an investigation.“I have not yet seen this kind of blatant message that basically LGBTQ+ people should be killed, should be shot… We have to take all of these threats very seriously,” said the Canada research chair for the public understanding of sexual and gender minority youth at Edmonton’s MacEwan University.“We’ve seen this elsewhere in Canada where people have been charged for vandalism.”Last week the hate crimes coordinator was called in following vandalism on the downtown crosswalks.READ MORE: Calgary Trans and Pride sidewalk vandalism investigated as a hate crimeWells said this kind of targeted vandalism is very concerning and these kinds of attacks reverberate through an entire community.“It’s very disconcerting. Hate crimes strike fear and terror into an entire community and hopefully what we’ll see is Calgarians rally against these messages of hate with messages of pride, love, and support.”He also encourages more downtown businesses to decorate their storefronts with pride messages and rainbows and show “these kinds of values are not the values of Calgarians” and shouldn’t be tolerated.“It’s sad to see this kind of hate and ignorance in our communities, but we know it’s there. And we can replace these messages of hate with love and acceptance.”Hill hopes that he hopes Calgary is a place for people to live the lives they want to live.“People [should be] comfortable to be themselves and live their authentic lives without fear of violence or fear of discrimination. Unfortunately, we do see that not everyone shares those same values.”Hill calls on LGBTQ+ allies to step up and call out trans- or homophobic rhetoric to create a safer environment for everyone.As far as the pending cleanup goes, Wells and Hill both applaud the painting company and the city for their quick work in clearing the graffiti whenever situations like this arise.Pride in Calgary runs from Aug. 23 to Sept. 2.-with files from Kayla Bruchlast_img read more

Facebook as an election weapon from Obama to Trump

July 18, 2019

Explore further Citation: Facebook as an election weapon, from Obama to Trump (2018, March 23) retrieved 18 July 2019 from The use of Facebook data to target voters has triggered global outrage with the Cambridge Analytica scandal. But the concept is nothing new: Barack Obama made extensive use of the social network in 2008 and stepped up “micro-targeting” in his 2012 re-election effort. “Being able to micro-target a voter down to what magazine they read and what issues might make them turn out does have an advantage for a candidate when they’re running for an election.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “The Trump campaign did quite a good job at micro-targeting,” she said, noting that it put a heavy focus on seemingly marginal localities that were identified as potentially winnable thanks to socal media, and ended up tipping Republican.According to documents released by the Federal Election Commission (FEC), Trump’s new choice of national security advisor John Bolton also hired Cambridge Analytica to conduct profiling work for his Super PAC fundraising group in support of Republican congressional candidates.Waking up to problemWhat remains unclear is whether the techniques made a difference in the 2016 US election.Chirag Shah, a Rutgers University professor of information and computer science, said the data gleaned could have been instrumental to Trump’s campaign.”We know from other applications, not just in the political domain, but also all kinds of marketing commercialization domains that these things are very, very instrumental,” Shah said.”It is however speculative to say this really change the outcome of the election. All we can say is that, yes there were people who were influenced or targeted using this data.”Experts also stress that neither the Obama nor the Trump campaign broke any laws on the protection of private data—or even Facebook’s internal rules—which were tightened in 2015 to prevent developers from collecting people’s data without explicit consent.Shah noted the concerns about improper use of personal data are not new.”The problem is once people access the data from Facebook, for which they often pay, that data is out of Facebook’s hands and out of Facebook’s users hands. “And there’s no way that Facebook will be able to track all of the data being shared by third parties, fourth parties.”Rayid Ghani, a University of Chicago researcher who was chief scientist for the 2012 Obama campaign, defended his team’s use of Facebook data while arguing for a need for better information that would allow users to know when and how their personal information is collected.”The public needs to be aware of what data is being collected about them, what it is being used for, who it is shared/sold to, and what they’re doing with it,” Ghani said in a Medium blog post.”We need to push corporations to make their privacy policies and terms of use more human-friendly, and less fine-print. ” Facebook data has been used for years on political campaigns, but members of Barack Obama’s team deny obtaining people’s information without consent Cambridge Analytica: firm at the heart of Facebook scandal © 2018 AFP The unauthorized gathering of data on 50 million Facebook users by a British consulting firm that worked for Donald Trump has sparked intense debate on how politicians and marketers—appropriately or not—use such personal information.But Cambridge Analytica, the firm at the center of the firestorm, has stressed it is far from alone in using data gleaned online to precisely target voters.”Obama’s 2008 campaign was famously data-driven, pioneered micro-targeting in 2012, talking to people specifically based on the issues they care about,” the British firm said on Twitter.Former members of the Obama team fiercely dispute any comparison to the Cambridge Analytica case, in which an academic researcher is accused of scooping up a massive trove of data without consent using a Facebook personality quiz, and transferring it improperly to the firm.”How dare you!” tweeted Michael Simon, who headed Obama’s micro-targeting team in 2008, in response to the firm.”We didn’t steal private Facebook profile data from voters under false pretenses. OFA (Obama’s campaign) voluntarily solicited opinions of hundreds of thousands of voters. We didn’t commit theft to do our groundbreaking work.”Jeremy Bird, a member of the 2012 Obama team, echoed those sentiments, warning: “Do not use the Obama campaign to justify your shady business.”But while Cambridge Analytica’s methods for acquiring data are in dispute, the underlying goal—using social media to take the pulse of voters and find those who are persuadable—was common to both campaigns.So-called micro-targeting, which borrows techniques from the marketing world, is as much about mobilizing voters and getting them to the polls as about changing minds.And micro-targeting long pre-dates the internet, with campaigns as early as 1976 using this method, according to Victoria Farrar-Myers, a political scientist and researcher at Southern Methodist University.Everyone who uses social media makes a decision to share some personal information, she says, although they “may not be fully aware of how people can utilize that.” Analysts say the firestorm over data hijacking has helped users wake up to how social media information is used by marketers and others read more