JOB POSTING: IEEFA Financial Analyst Based in Europe FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享The Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis is seeking to hire a financial analyst in Europe to join our team of professionals. The position is suited for an experienced financial analyst who can produce high-quality research reports and understands the market dynamics of the energy sector.IEEFA conducts research and analyses on financial and economic issues related to energy and the environment. The Institute’s mission is to accelerate the transition to a diverse, sustainable and profitable energy economy and to reduce dependence on coal and other non-renewable energy resources.Background information on IEEFA, our research products, and daily news and commentary can be found at www.ieefa.org. IEEFA is headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, and currently has personnel in the U.S., Australia, India, and Turkey.The major projects on the horizon for IEEFA in Europe in 2016 will include:Analyzing the financing structures and risks of several proposed new coal-fired power plants, vulnerabilities of existing coal-fired power plants, and decisions on resource planning being made by electric utilities in Europe.Establishing personal relationships with key financial analysts, providing commentary and information on energy markets trends, and coordinating research efforts as appropriate with other researchers based in Europe.Training environmental advocates in how to use financial information in their campaigns.Providing support for divestment/investment campaigns, as IEEFA did in Norway in 2015.Representing IEEFA and its partners before formal and informal bodies in both the public and private sector, such as investment professionals and appointed and elected officials.Building and maintaining a body of information and analysis that supports regular public reporting through issuance of papers, op ed pieces, and commentaries.Responsibilities and Skills NeededThe analyst’s responsibilities would include:Working with the IEEFA team in the U.S. to determine priorities for research projects. Projects will be selected based on several factors, including strength of local campaigns, the availability of research data, and the availability of competent local and regional expertise on European capacity markets and policy issues;Researching and preparing detailed analyses of the financing mechanisms and likely economic impacts of specific proposed coal plants, existing coal plants, or utilities in Europe;Presenting IEEFA reports to various audiences in Europe, including meeting with key players in the financial community, and presenting information to advocacy organizations or in public forums;Coordinating with IEEFA’s media team, serving as a media spokesperson, writing periodic commentaries for the IEEFA website.The candidate must have top-notch analytic, writing and presentation skills, and be a self-starter able to work well with long-distance supervision. He or she must also be willing to travel when necessary, and could be based in London or the Continent. He or she must have at least five years of experience in financial analysis or a related field.CompensationIEEFA’s model is to contract with analysts through their business consultancies. Pay will be commensurate with experience.ApplicationsPlease send a resume or c.v., along with a writing sample, to: Sandy Buchanan, Executive Director, at [email protected] This is a newly-created position, and is available as soon as a suitable candidate is selected.Originally published March 24, 2016
Month: December 2020
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Utility Dive:Alliant Energy on Thursday issued its Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR), revealing a plan to eliminate coal use and cut emissions 80% by 2050. The company will spend more than $2 billion on new renewable energy, and will double its number of wind sites from six to a dozen. Renewables will make up more than 30% of its energy mix by 2030.Alliant joins a handful of utilities announcing plans to eliminate coal use and increase investment in renewables. In June, Consumers Energy announced it would file a long-term plan that calls for nixing coal use by 2040 and more than tripling renewable energy utilization over the course of the next 10 years. In January, PPL Corp. said it expects most of its Kentucky coal fleet to be retired by 2050 and Duke Energy has included coal-less scenarios in its long-term planning.New construction and purchase agreements will allow Alliant to grow its wind portfolio to more than 2,700 MW by 2021. Earlier this year Alliant received approval for 500 MW of wind in Iowa, which means about a third of its capacity in that state will be wind power by 2020.The plan calls for over $2.3 billion in planned capital expenditures over the next five years, with a focus on grid infrastructure. More: Alliant plans to eliminate coal, cut emissions 80% by 2050 Alliant Energy to eliminate coal generation in Iowa and Michigan, invest $2 billion in renewables
New Jersey study sees huge potential in offshore wind FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Press of Atlantic City:Winds blowing off the Atlantic coast could provide four times more electricity each year than the region currently uses, according to a new report. “Wind Power to Spare: The Enormous Energy Potential of Atlantic Offshore Wind,” released Thursday by Environment New Jersey Research & Policy Center, said 12 of the 14 coastal states — including New Jersey — have offshore wind potential that exceeds their current electricity consumption.The Environment New Jersey Research & Policy Center report also found that current wind leases off the New Jersey coast through Orsted and U.S. Wind for New Jersey have a combined capacity of 4,173 MW and will be able to power more than 1.5 million homes.“We’re facing rising seas, intensifying storms, and unprecedented health threats because we’ve relied so long on dirty energy sources,” said Doug O’Malley, director of Environment New Jersey Research & Policy Center. “But sitting right here next to us is the Atlantic Ocean, and its winds provide a massive source of clean, renewable energy.”Europe has 4,100 offshore wind turbines supplying electricity to 20 million homes a day, the report said, but in the U.S. so far only one is operating. That is the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, developed by Deepwater Wind.The report said advances in technology are bringing costs down. The overall cost of new offshore wind has declined by 25 percent in the past five years, the study quotes the asset management firm Lazard as reporting. “Atlantic coastal states use more than a quarter of the nation’s energy,” said Gideon Weissman of Frontier Group, report co-author. “Offshore wind is the ideal resource for states like New Jersey – it’s clean, it’s renewable, and it’s conveniently located near our biggest cities.”More: Wind energy potential dwarfs today’s electricity use, report says
Funding for esVolta projects shows institutional investors warming up to energy storage FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享PV Magazine:esVolta, a developer of utility-scale battery energy storage projects, recently closed a $140 million senior secured credit facility to finance a 136 MW/480 MWh portfolio of eight storage projects in California.It’s this type of institutional investing that’s going to drive the massive growth expected from the energy storage industry. It’s not the next lithium-ion battery breakthrough that’s going to accelerate the energy storage industry. It’s not the next inflated promise from a flow battery startup, compressed-air scheme, solid-state battery research project or energy storage dream funded by Bill Gates.It’s energy storage projects as investment-grade finance tools for institutional investors that will grow the energy storage market to $546 billion in annual revenue by 2035, as predicted by Lux Research or grow the business tenfold from 2018 to 2023, rising to $5 billion annually, according to Wood Mackenzie.CIT’s power and energy business led the financing round, along with Siemens Financial Services (SFS), CoBank, ACB, and KeyBanc Capital Markets. These investor names can typically be found financing natural gas power plants and wind projects — so this entry into energy storage is a bit of a watershed moment.Randolph Mann, president of esVolta was interviewed by pv magazine and noted, “We do think this is the largest and most significant funding for front-of-the-meter stand-alone energy storage.” Mann notes that these projects are “all stand-alone front-of -the-meter — not solar-plus-storage projects.” esVolta has long-term revenue contracts on all of the projects and has partnered with Southern Power Company on four of them. The capital will be used to help fund construction and operations of the projects.Mann said, “Institutional investors are waking up and ready to invest in storage. These projects are conducive to traditional project financing.”[Eric Wesoff]More: Energy storage projects reach ‘investment-grade’ with esVolta’s $140 million debt facility
State mandates to drive 12.5GW of new wind, solar capacity in New England region by 2030—S&P FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享S&P Global Market Intelligence ($):Despite being the smallest independent system operator, or ISO, in terms of electricity demand in the U.S., ISO New England is expected to be a very active market for renewable energy deployment over the next decade. Each of the six states in the ISO has a mandatory renewable portfolio standard in place and the region is increasing its dedication to offshore wind procurement. As a result, S&P Global Market Intelligence estimates that over 12,500 MW of wind and solar capacity will be installed in the region by 2030.The New England markets that are expected to move the needle the most are Connecticut, Maine and Massachusetts due to aggressive RPS requirements and offshore wind targets. Connecticut has a 48% renewable target by 2030 as well as a 2,000 MW offshore wind procurement goal also by 2030. Maine enacted legislation in June 2019 that increased the state’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and 100% by 2050 making it the first state in the region to pass a 100% renewable mandate. Massachusetts has one of the most complex packages of renewable energy statutes in the country. The state has in place an RPS, a clean energy standard, a clean peak energy standard, an alternative energy portfolio standard, a solar carve-out and an offshore wind procurement goal just to name a few. The clean energy standard sets a requirement of 80% clean energy by 2050 and the offshore wind procurement goal is 3,200 MW by 2035.Rounding out the ISO New England region are New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. New Hampshire has the least aggressive RPS in New England with a target of 25.2% by 2025. Rhode Island has an RPS mandate of 38.5% by 2035; however, the state is taking steps to increase this standard with Gov. Gina Raimondo signing an executive order committing the state to go 100% renewable by 2030. Vermont has a lofty RPS mandate of 75% by 2032 which it is reaching primarily through contracted hydroelectric generation.Maine leads all New England states in installed renewable capacity to date at just over 1,500 MW with 921 MW coming from wind and 565 MW coming from biomass resources. Massachusetts is close with 1,436 MW, the majority of which is 1,021 MW of solar. Overall, just over 4,300 MW of renewable capacity is currently installed within ISO New England — one of the lowest totals among all ISOs. This capacity is fairly evenly split between solar, wind and biomass resources. There is 1,480 MW of wind, 1,449 MW of solar and 1,388 MW of biomass installed throughout the region.There are over 8,400 MW of renewable projects in the pipeline in New England and the majority of this capacity is in wind projects. Roughly 6,900 MW of wind capacity is in various stages of development throughout New England, with most of this coming from large offshore wind projects. Land constraints limit the options for large utility-scale wind and solar projects in the region. As a result, onshore renewable capacity is mostly in smaller – less than 20 MW – solar projects spread throughout the region. In total, just over 1,450 MW worth of solar capacity is in the pipeline in New England according Market Intelligence data.The specific renewable technology of focus in New England over the next decade is without question offshore wind. Due to limited land availability and better wind resources off the coast, offshore wind has seen significantly increased attention from renewable developers and state legislators. Connecticut and Massachusetts both have specific offshore wind capacity targets in place at 2,000 MW and 3,200 MW, respectively.[Adam Wilson]More ($): New England renewable policies to drive 12,500 MW of renewable capacity by 2030
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享St. Louis Post-Dispatch:An insurance company is demanding nearly $128 million in collateral from Peabody Energy Corp., citing the company’s “deteriorating” financial condition.In a lawsuit filed Thursday by Argonaut Insurance Co., the company says it has issued over $202 million in surety bonds to Peabody-associated entities around the globe. They are mostly reclamation-type bonds issued to ensure that mines and surrounding lands are restored after mining operations end, the suit says.Beginning in August, Argonaut demanded that it be released from the bonds, citing Peabody’s “deteriorating” financial condition, the suit says. Peabody could alternately provide sufficient collateral or an irrevocable letter of credit.Peabody has provided $75 million in collateral, but Argonaut wants nearly $128 million more, or 100% of the value of the bonds, the suit says. The lawsuit seeks a judge’s order that would enforce the terms of the bonds.In a statement, Peabody said it is “seeking a mutually agreeable solution,” and promised “a comprehensive update” on collateral requests during their Nov. 9 announcement of their quarterly financial results.St. Louis-based Peabody, like other coal companies, has struggled during the coronavirus pandemic and due to decline in demand.[Robert Patrick]More: Insurance company demanding nearly $128 million in collateral from Peabody Energy Insurance company seeking collateral from Peabody to cover the coal miner’s cleanup bonds
The hottest mountain town below the Mason- Dixon? It’s not uber-hip Asheville, N.C., or trendy and athletic Charlottesville, Va. It’s not the dirt-bag paradise of Boone, or up-and-comer Fayetteville, W.Vva. It’s Chattanooga, Tennessee, a former industrial town that was once dubbed the “dirtiest city in America” by the federal government thanks to the city’s alarming levels of pollution emissions. Today, Chattanooga has eschewed its industrial image and emerged as a paradise of singletrack, rock, and rivers. Boaters, climbers, runners, and bikers are now flocking to the city for the world-class recreation that sits literally on the edge of town.Randy Whorton moved to Chattanooga with his wife from Boulder, Colo., expecting to spend a year, maybe two, in the Southern town before heading back to the Rockies. Seven years later, the Whortons have no intentions of heading west.“We had no idea that the recreation would be this good,” says Whorton, founder of Wild Trails, a nonprofit that distributes grants to clubs for local trail construction and maintenance. “There’s so much singletrack around this city, it’s unbelievable.”Chattanooga sits on a dramatic bend in the Tennessee River, virtually surrounded by the short, but steep mountains that make up the Tennessee River Gorge. Much of that land is a mix of state parks, forests, private conservancy, and Tennessee Valley Authority land that’s open to the public and, over the last few years, has been systematically developed for recreation by groups like Wild Trails and the Southern Off-Road Bikers Association (SORBA). The amount of trails close to town is off the charts. There are 56 trailheads within 30 minutes of downtown. Boulder has only 21.It’s not just singletrack that Chattanooga offers. “Chattanooga is easily one of the top two or three climbing towns in the country,” says Dan Rose, a climber who opened the Crash Pad hostel in downtown Chattanooga in 2010. The fabled crags of Lookout Mountain are 10 minutes from downtown.For mountain bikers and trail runners, Raccoon Mountain’s 22 miles of singletrack waits 10 minutes away. For hikers, the Cumberland Trail starts 20 minutes from town and continues to grow north. New trail projects are scattered throughout the gorge, including an inner city tract known as Stringer’s Ridge and Williams Island, a 20-acre hunk of land sitting in the middle of the Tennessee River close to downtown.“It’s changed the lifestyle of the city,” Whorton says. “The outdoors isn’t just for the weekends here. It’s after work. It’s lunch break. You can blitz up to Raccoon Mountain, knock out a loop, and be back to work in an hour and a half.”The growing “live to play” philosophy catapulted Chattanooga into the national spotlight this year when Outside Magazine readers declared the city the “Best Town Ever,” besting perennial favorites like Boulder, Portland, and Durango. It wasn’t always this way. Before former mayor-turned Senator Bob Corker declared Chattanooga was “the Boulder of the East” in 2003 and enacted key initiatives to make good on that claim, few locals were enjoying the outdoor adventure that was staring them in the face. Ben Friberg is a Chattanooga local and stand-up paddleboarder who says he had the rivers and mountains to himself as a kid.“I was always surprised there weren’t more people out in the elements when I was growing up,” says Friberg. “In the ‘90s, it seemed like you had everything to yourself. If you ran into anyone on the river, they were probably a good friend.”Today, the creeks that Friberg grew up paddling are widely recognized as some of the steepest and gnarliest in the South. Ditto the climbing on the sandstone walls that rise from the Tennessee River and its many tributaries. Some of the most storied climbing crags in the East (Tennessee Wall, Sunset) sit on the outskirts of downtown. The singletrack continues to grow as well, as mountain bikers and trail runners work together to build out Raccoon Mountain’s system and create brand new trail hubs, like the newly created Five Points system, which runs on top of Lookout Mountain not far from downtown. You could still call Chattanooga the dirtiest city in America. Only now, it’s a compliment.Raccoon Mountain22 miles of purpose-built singletrack overlooking downtown Chattanooga. The system was built by mountain bikers, but is beloved by all and hosts the Scenic City Trail Marathon and a leg of the Chattanooga Mountains Stage Race.Tennessee WallA 100-foot sandstone cliff on the edge of the Tennessee River Gorge in Prentice Cooper State Forest. The crack-heavy crag is one of the most beloved climbing areas in the East.Tennessee RiverThe steep slopes surrounding Chattanooga are full of class IV-V creeks. For something more mellow, consider knocking out a piece of the 48-mile Tennessee River Blueway that runs from Chickamauga Dam to Nickajack Dam. The section that skirts the edge of downtown near the aquarium is popular with canoes, kayaks, swimmers, and SUP’s.LAND AT The Crash PadThe Crash Pad, a boutique hostel in downtown Chattanooga that caters to the adventure-set, is easily the nicest hostel you’ll ever stay in state-side. crashpadchattanooga.com Gear Up AT Rock Creek Rock Creek Outfitters has been singing Chattanooga’s praises for two decades. Their popular race series helps fund the many trail projects around town. rockcreek.com
Go the Distance: The rolling, scenic Umstead 100-mile run near Raleigh, N.C., is the best beginner-friendly century run in the country.It’s the season of bloom—and also a time when runners shed their winter skin and get ready to race. Toe the line at one of the South’s classic foot races. From fast road races to epic off-road ultras, the region has the perfect course for every distance.Charlottesville Ten Miler Charlottesville, Va. • March 16 A rite of passage in Charlottesville’s tight-knit running community, the scenic ten miler attracts a field of over 2,000 runners who enjoy the best of the historic town in Thomas Jefferson country. Racers take off from the grounds of the University of Virginia and wind through the campus towards downtown and back. Mid-March should deliver the perfect temps for finishing 10 miles, while taking in views of the surrounding Central Virginia Blue Ridge off in the distance.Cooper River Bridge Run 10K Charleston, S.C. • April 6 Spring will be singing as you run with the masses at this popular low country 10K. Growing into one of the region’s most popular road races since inception in 1978, the race features some of the best landscapes of the South Carolina coast as it moves from Mt. Pleasant across the Cooper River via the Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge into historic downtown Charleston. In addition to the camaraderie of 40,000 runners, the race will get a sonic boost in 2013 with the addition of 20 bands from varying genres along the course.River Bound Race Series Swannanoa, N.C. • April 6 North Carolina Outward Bound hosts this fast-growing race series on the trails of Warren Wilson College. At the first race on April 6, choose between a 10K or 5K as you run through the scenic campus’s impressive network of trails that often parallels the Swannanoa River. Additional races take place on June 8 (15K/5K) and September 14 (half marathon and 5K). There is also an additional series on various trails around Charlotte with races in May, July, and September.Umstead 100 Miler Raleigh, N.C. • April 6 For the better part of two decades, Umstead has been helping ultra runners make the leap to the coveted century mark, and along the way prepared them for some of the epics with tougher topography. Runners are given a generous 30 hours to complete eight 12.5-mile laps on the loop course within Raleigh’s Umstead State Park. Set on a course of powdery granite screenings that’s gentle under the legs, runners follow a well-marked path with glow sticks for finding your way at night. There’s a total of 8,000 feet of elevation gain during the race, but with plenty of space between the hills, runners have ample time for recovery. A 50-mile option is also offered.Ukrop’s Monument Avenue 10K Richmond, Va. • April 13 Shrouded in Virginia’s seasonal blooms, a huge field of 35,000 runs out and back around the median of Monument Avenue in Richmond’s Historic District. Along the way, the thick pack of runners gains the momentum of live bands and loud partying spectators, as they enjoy the comfort of the tree-lined streets that move past a series of statues commemorating legends of the Confederacy and legendary tennis champ Arthur Ashe (an area native). With a flat course and plenty of encouragement coming in every direction, this is a great race for runners just making the leap to 10K.Scenic City Trail Marathon and Half-Marathon Chattanooga, Tenn. • May 18 Trail running is serious business on the vast network of footpaths constantly being created in Chattanooga. Get a taste of the area’s choice singletrack at one of the largest trail marathons in the South. Choose between 26.2 and 13.1 miles as you huff it on the trails of the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Raccoon Mountain, which features plenty of twists, turns, roots, and rocks, as well as expansive views you’d hope to find on the eastern side of good ole’ Rocky Top. When it comes to climbing, though, this one isn’t quite as steep as other races in the venerable Salomon Rock/Creek Trail Series, so road warriors looking to try trail should consider this a solid option.Capitol Hill Classic 10K Washington, D.C. • May 19 Seize the opportunity to march on Washington in a pair of short shorts. This classic 34-year-old event in the District is the only race run entirely though the historic corridor of Capitol Hill. Runners pass the U.S. Capitol and the Library of Congress before taking shelter from the sun under the tree canopies along East Capitol Street. Circle around RFK Stadium before heading back down East Capitol for the finish.
National Parks in TroubleThere is lots of talk about the Sequestration and its predicted affect on the already slashed and burned National Parks budget. From closed campgrounds and visitors centers to discontinued ranger programs, the news gets more and more depressing every day. Hoping to raise awareness while possibly keeping panic at bay, the National Parks Conservation Association released The Top Five Myths about the Sequester and National Parks, which explains a little of what is happening on a national level. If you would like to help, check out the second annual Plates for the Parkway event June 10-13 to benefit the Blue Ridge Parkway. Like the parkway itself the event aims to link restaurants up and down the BRP in places like Asheville, Roanoke, and Hickory, in an effort to raise funds. Participating restaurants will donate a minimum of 10 percent of proceeds to benefit the Blue Ridge Parkway Foundation.In other National Parks news, the town of Culpeper, Va. has joined Madison County in its fight to bring a public entrance to Shenandoah National Park to its county. Apparently, President Hoover promised them an entrance when he built Rapidan Camp, but never made good on it – typical Hoover. The Blue Ridge Parkway could see devastating budget cuts. Your outdoor news for March 18, 2013:Smoky Mountain BlazeA large fire swept through resort rental cabins outside Pigeon Forge, Tenn., just north of Gatlinburg and the northern entrance to Great Smoky Mountains National Park. What started as a house fire on Sunday evening quickly spread to neighboring homes and engulfed 5o or so large cabins in the Black Bear Resort and Trappers Ridge, forcing the evacuation of several hundred people. At its peak, the fire covered 140 acres and fire departments on the ground say the blaze is contained, but not controlled, though they have called in the National Guard to bring in some water-dropping Black Hawks. Luckily, no one was injured, but the amount of property destroyed is significant. There is an interesting debate going on on our Facebook page about the blaze and whether it is a result of too much development and not enough space. Either way, firefighters are working hard to keep it from spreading into the surrounding woods and possibly even the national park, so we thank them for that.In It to Win ItFrom the “I didn’t know you could compete in that…” file comes this profile from the Smoky Mountain News on North Carolina’s competitive fly fishing team. The article takes a look at the rise of WNC fly fishermen on the national competitive fly fishing scene, which has come a long way in the past few years. Usually comprised of anglers from traditional western states, the U.S. team now how two members from N.C. and the state team is the top team in the country. This is an interesting sub-culture of fly fishing, and one few probably know that much about. While most utilize fly fishing as a way to get out in nature and relax – essentially the opposite of competing – this is America and if you can quantify it, you can win, and if you can win, I’ll beat you.
Signs like this now indicated private property along the Jackson River. Previously the water was advertised as public by VDGIF.Landowners along Virginia’s famed Jackson River have won a lawsuit against an angler from Charlottesville who entered the river from a public access spot and floated downriver.Landowners claim to hold a Crown Grant to the property in question. Such grants, issued by the King of England to loyal subjects in the colonies, convey ownership of land and, in some cases, certain waterways that traverse that land. An 1802 statute passed by the Virginia legislature states that all lands under water not otherwise conveyed by deed or special grant are to be held essentially in trust for the use and enjoyment of the Commonwealth’s citizens. The plaintiffs in North South Development v. Crawford believe that because they hold a Crown Grant to the disputed stretch of the Jackson River—a grant older than the 1802 statute—that property is privately owned.The Commonwealth of Virginia, however, appears to have assumed otherwise. The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) made maps to the area available to the public on its website and at kiosks along public access points on the river. In 2009 the VDGIF also sent the landowners a letter informing them that their no-trespassing signs would have no influence on the public’s use of the river.The angler in question entered the river at a public access point, possessed a valid Virginia fishing license, and floated downstream to the disputed section in a kayak. He didn’t venture out of the river onto its bank. The landowners asked the angler to leave and he refused to do so. After he was charged with trespassing, VDGIF officials informed him that they had no statutory authority to defend him in court. When he turned to the Virginia Attorney General’s Office for legal help, he was again rebuffed. According to Brian Gottstein, director of communications, “This is a civil trespassing case between private parties, and the commonwealth generally doesn’t intervene in disputes between private parties.” Having followed the law to its letter, the angler was on his own in court.In the end, the court decided that the riparian landowners had a better claim to the disputed river bottom than did the angler. In light of the case, the VDGIF has changed signs along the Jackson River to indicate that this section of the river is off-limits to the public. In the end, the angler agreed not to return, and because he essentially represented the public, anyone else who ventures into that part of the river uninvited can now be criminally charged with trespassing.Why does this case matter to Virginia’s outdoor enthusiasts? Nearly all of the commonwealth—including its rivers—was conveyed before the 1802 statute. It is now clear that the state will not defend the public’s use of what was thought by all for years to be public property.The defendant in North South Development v. Crawford is soliciting funds from concerned citizens to help pay his legal bills, which have exceeded $100,000. (virginiariversdefensefund.org).